This article was part of a roundtable series that was originally published in June 2019 by the Beirut School of Critical Studies working group in the Arab Council for the Social Sciences. It has been republished by Security in Context in October 2023. For access to all the roundtable articles, please visit this link:

By Mazin Qumsiyeh


‘'s a Zionist paradox. We came here to redeem a land and we end up contaminating it.’ Alon Tal, Founder of the Israel Union for Environmental Defense (Beyer, 1998; Tal, 2002).

Although Palestinians have long identified their relationship to their land as a key aspect of their struggle for self-determination, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is rarely discussed as a struggle for environmental justice. Environmental injustice is now widely accepted as a main factor in all conflict zones and is increasingly relevant in the case of Palestine. The enormous disparity in power and wealth between Israelis and Palestinians – the GDP of Palestinians under Israeli rule is 1/8th that of the Israelis who share with them the space of historic Palestine – has as much impact on the Palestinians’s natural environment as it does on their political rights (Qumsiyeh 2013; Qumsiyeh and Isaac 2012). In this short article I wish to highlight some key issues of environmental justice related to the settler colonial nature of the Israeli state and how we as Palestinians might challenge these issues and muster international support to deal with them.

Selected issues of Palestinian Environmental Justice

Colonial apartheid infrastructure: When the state of Israel was created, over 500 Palestinian villages and towns were ethnically cleansed (Pappe, 2006). Aside from the direct human cost, this itself involved a process of environmental destruction. In place of native communities and orchards consisting of figs, almonds, carobs, olives, hawthorn, and oak trees, these areas were cleared and European pine trees were planted. This caused massive ecological and other devastation not to mention the susceptibility of these trees to fires. The draining of the Hula Wetlands led to the disappearance of 119 species and the diversion of the Jordan valley waters from Lake Tiberias via the so-called ‘Israel national water carrier’ devastated the Jordan Valley.

In the 1967 occupied areas, the 1993 Oslo agreements that were supposed to lead to a viable Palestinian entity/state resulted in the expansion of Israeli colonies to 750,000 units (ARIJ, 2016). The Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are also subdivided into areas, some annexed to Israel, some under Israeli civil and military control (area C, 61.1% of the OPT) and some under Israeli military control only (area B, 18.3%), with a small area under Palestinian civil and partial security control (area A, 17.7%) (Isaac and Hilal, 2011; ARIJ, 2016). Israeli colonies were planned for security and ideological reasons, and so were  built on hilltops dotting the Palestinian landscape in order to fit into a pattern enabling control of the natural resources and of the native Palestinian population (Benvenisti, 2002; Weizman, 2012). The construction by Israel of an illegal 760 km of apartheid/segregation barrier that has already uprooted 1.5 million trees is continuing. Other infrastructures include over 1,500 kilometers of settler roads, mostly separated from existing (and severely dilapidated) Palestinian road systems.

Pollution: Israelis dump solid and liquid waste without restriction on Palestinian land, fields, and side roads.  The solid waste generated in West Jerusalem, for example, is transferred to an insanitary dumping site east of Abu Dis. The Government of Israel has constructed 17 industrial zones in the West Bank. They are located mainly on hilltops, from which they dump industrial wastewater onto adjacent Palestinian lands.  No information about industries in the Israeli industrial zones is accessible to the Palestinians. Gishuri Industries, a manufacturer of pesticides and fertilizers which faced significant court setbacks in its original plant in Kfar Saba, was moved to an area adjacent to Tulkarm inside the West Bank in 1987. Significant pollution from this and other companies in this area has damaged citrus and vineyards (ARIJ, 2016). The first research on genotoxicity in the OPT identified the significant impact of the Barqan Industrial settlement on Palestinians of Burqeen village (Hammad and Qumsiyeh, 2013). Further issues arise from the fact that Israel sends its trash including electronic trash across the Green Line resulting in significant health effect to native Palestinians (Khlaif and Qumsiyeh 2017).

Weapons: There is accumulating evidence that Israel’s use of ordnance such as white phosphorous in the occupied Palestinian territories is harmful to human health and the environment (Human Rights Watch and Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, 2009).  

Demographics: Before the Zionist project began in the late 19th century, Palestine had some 1,300 villages and towns, each with small and manageable populations. The total population at that time was 850,000, distributed among various religious persuasions (3% Jewish, 13% Christian, 80% Muslim, 4% other). The land was owned and/or used by those local people. Following the first Zionist congress in 1897, this structure was radically altered, with mostly European Jews immigrating and taking over the land, culminating in two episodes of ethnic cleansing and consolidation: 1) 1948-1966, when over 500 Palestinian villages and towns were destroyed (Pappe, 2006) and their land re-cultivated mostly through the planting of  European pine trees that  damaged the local environment, and 2) 1967 until today, with the occupation of  the West Bank and Gaza  and much reshaping of landscape  in the  areas  now referred to as ‘Occupied Palestinian Territories’ (Masalha, 1992; Qumsiyeh, 2004). Over six million native Palestinians have access to about 8.2% of the land (personal calculations) in the Galilee, the Triangle, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Negev, and Gaza. Some six million Israeli Jews (mostly new immigrants since the foundation of Israel in 1948) have access to the remaining 91.8% of historic Palestine. The development of the state of Israel and its occupation of the 1967 areas emphasized military, territorial and demographic security, but not environmental security (Tal, 2002; Newman, 2009). In 1990, the settler population in the West Bank and Gaza stood at over 200,000 with an additional 120,000 Israelis living in illegally annexed areas of East Jerusalem. Today the settler population is over 900,000!

Water: There is uneven distribution of water between the natives and the Israeli colonizers who now control >90% of West Bank water (Gasteyer et al., 2012; Messerschmid and Selby, 2015). Settlers have closed off the flow of water from most open springs, which devastated the habitats for human and for animals such as amphibians (Salman et al. 2014) and freshwater snails (Handal et al., 2016).  


Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (which Israel ratified) clearly states that ‘The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies’ (adding that life in military occupied areas must be allowed to proceed as normal as possible). UN Security Council Resolution 465 of 1980 reads in part that: ‘..all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure or status of the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, or any part thereof, have no legal validity and [that] Israel's policy and practices of settling parts of its population and new immigrants in those territories constitute a flagrant violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention.’

The 2003 United Nations Envionment Programe (UNEP) report identified key effects of the occupation on the environment and made over 100 recommendations without prioritization or target dates, and with little focus on connecting those recommendations to the occupation.

Escobar (1998) identified key principles that shape social movements, including those that deal with environmental justice issues, and in our view they are all relevant to Palestine: (1) the reaffirmation of identity (black, Palestinian, or other); (2) the right to territory (as space for existing, or ‘being’); (3) autonomy (the right to exercise being/ identity); (4) the right to construct an autonomous perspective of the future. All of these are lacking in a situation of occupation/colonization.

This situation is not really a conflict since the word conflict implies equal or almost equal parties. It is a colonial onslaught on natives who have little by way of self-defense abilities. It originally derived from international sources and for most of its history was internationalized (e.g., Balfour Declaration, British Mandate, League of Nations, and UN resolutions). It must therefore be brought to a resolution through an international effort that returns dignity and sovereignty to the local people. In this context, environmental justice is also key to peacemaking (Alleson and Schoenfeld, 2007). In view of the rampant environmental injustice in Palestine which harms civilian populations, it is crucial to afford protection based on international laws, since the local laws are those of an apartheid colonial-settler state (see for example Al-Haq, 2015, There is recent interest in issues of combining international law applications to help in environmental justice issues especially relating to developing countries (see Anand, 2017). Palestine provides the ultimate test case for the value of international instruments in environmental justice (Alleson & Schoenfeld, 2007).

There are significant positive movements for environmental justice and sustainable living even in these difficult circumstances. For example people can build from the grassroots institutions that enhance and promote sustainable natural and human communities even in difficult circumstances of occupation and colonization (Qumsiyeh 2017; Qumsiyeh et al. 2017). Using cultural heritage can also help to address some of the challenges native people have (Qumsiyeh 2018). Such processes actually can form integral parts of decolonizing activities (Tuck et al. 2014).

Professor Mazin Qumsiyeh is founder and director of the Palestine Museum of Natural History and Palestine Institute for Biodiversity and Sustainability at Bethlehem University in occupied Palestine ( He is author of "Sharing the Land of Canaan" and "Popular Resistance in Palestine" (see


Al-Haq. 2015. Environmental Injustice in Occupied Palestinian Territory: Problems and Prospects.

Alleson, I. & Schoenfeld, S. 2007. Environmental Justice and Peacebuilding in the Middle East. Peace Review, 19, 371-379.

Anand, R., 2017. International Environmental Justice: A North-South Dimension. Routledge.

ARIJ 2016. Status of Environment in OPT 2015 Http://Www.Arij.Org/Latest-News/779-The-Status-Of-Env-2015-2016.Html

Benvenisti, M. 2002. Sacred Landscape: The Buried History of the Holy Land since 1948 . University of California Press.

Beyer, L. 1998. Trashing The Holy Land. Time, 62.

Escobar, A. 1998. Whose Knowledge, Whose Nature? Biodiversity, Conservation, and the Political Ecology of Social Movements. Journal of Political Ecology, 5, 53-82.

Gasteyer, S., Isaac, J., Hillal, J. & K Hodali. 2012. Water Grabbing in Colonial Perspective: Land and Water in Israel/Palestine. Water Alternatives, 5, 450.

Hammad, K.M., & M.B. Qumsiyeh, 2013. Genotoxic Effects of Israeli Industrial Pollutants on Residents of Bruqeen Village (Salfit District, Palestine). International Journal of Environmental Studies, 70, 655-662.

Handal, EN, Z. Amr, M.B. Qumsiyeh. 2016. Some records of Freshwater Snails from the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Jordan Journal of Natural History, 1(2), 23-29.

Hever, S. 2010. The Political Economy of Israel’s Occupation: Repression beyond exploitation. Pluto Press, London.

Isaac, J. & Hilal, J. 2011. Palestinian Landscape and the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68, 413-429.

Khlaif, N and M.B. Qumsiyeh. 2017. Genotoxicity of recycling electronic waste in Idhna, Hebron District, Palestine. Internl. Journal of Environmental Studies. 74(1):66-74

Malik, M. 'From Conflict to Cohesion': Competing Interests in Equality Law and Policy: A Paper for the Equality and Diversity Forum. 2008. Equality and Diversity Forum.

Masalha, N. 1992. Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Institute for Palestine Studies.

Messerschmid, C. and Selby, J. 2015. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin. Water Alternatives 8(2) 258-279

Mills, J.H. and Waite, T.A., 2009. Economic Prosperity, Biodiversity Conservation, and the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Ecological Economics, 68 (7), 2087-2095.

Newman, D. 2009. In the Name of Security: In the Name of Peace–Environmental Schizophrenia and the Security Discourse in Israel/Palestine. Facing Global Environmental Change. Springer.

Pappe, I. 2006. The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oneworld Publications. Oxford.

Qumsiyeh, M.B. 2004. Sharing the Land of Canaan: Human Rights and the Israeli-Palestinian Struggle. Pluto Press, London.

Qumsiyeh, M.B. 2013. The Coming Environmental Nakba: 57-59 in The Third Palestinian Environmental Awareness and Education Conference. EEC, Bethlehem.

Qumsiyeh, M.B 2017. Nature museums and botanical gardens for environmental conservation in developing countries. Bioscience, 67(7), 589-590.

Qumsiyeh, M.B. 2018. Ethnoecology of Palestine: Preserving Culture Heritage of Palestine’s Natural History. Conference Proceeding. In 4th Hyperheritage International Seminar Proceedings (International Conference): Smart Heritage.

Qumsiyeh, M.B. & Isaac, J. 2012. Research And Development in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: Challenges and Opportunities. Arab Studies Quarterly, 34, 158-172.

Qumsiyeh, M.B., Amr, Z. S. & Al-Oran, R. M. 1998. Further Records of Bats from Jordan and a Synopsis. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 22, 277-284.

Qumsiyeh, M.B., E Handal, J Chang, K Abualia, M Najajreh, M Abusarhan 2017. Role of museums and botanical gardens in ecosystem services in developing countries: Case study and outlook. Intl J Env Studies. 74(2): 340-350.

Salman, I. M. Salsaa’, and M.B. Qumsiyeh. 2014. Distribution and Cytogenetics of Amphibians from the occupied Palestinian territories (West Bank of Jordan). Jordan Natural History Journal, 1(1):86-98.

Tal, A. 2002. Pollution in a Promised Land: An Environmental History of Israel. University of California Press.

Tuck, E., McKENZIE, M. and McCoy, K., 2014. Land education: Indigenous, post-colonial, and decolonizing perspectives on place and environmental education research. Environmental Education Research, 20(1), 1-24.

UNEP 2003. Desk Study on the Environment in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Http://www.Unep.Org/Download_File.Multilingual.Asp?Fileid=105.

UNIFTFPA 2012. Toolkit and Guidance for Preventing and Managing Land and Natural Resources Conflict: Land and Conflict. United Nations Interagency Framework Team for Preventive Action, Geneva.

Weizman, E., 2012. Hollow Land: Israel's Architecture of Occupation. Verso Books.

Article or Event Link
Oct 30, 2023
Public Policy


Public Policy

Join Our Newsletter and Get the Latest
Posts to Your Inbox

No spam ever. Read our Privacy Policy
Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.